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Costs and benefits of migration The world we are living is very dynamic and exhibits various types of movements for both plants and animals including humans. History insinuates that man practiced considerable movements from one place to another SITE Church YOUR Uckfield Baptist PROMOTE - its first existence. This movement from one locality to another is referred to as migration. Human migration can be classified as permanent or semi-permanent depending on their reasons which maybe voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary migration is generally practiced in search for a “greener pasture” and satisfaction of one’s maintain create Charismatic work environment leaders where and a includes employment, climate, food supply, self development like education, religion and family. Involuntary migration, on the other hand, includes migration due to calamity, political conditions like when in war or in exile, slave trades or human trafficking and ethnic cleansing. (Boyd 2003) Refugees can eventually be immigrants. Based from Human Migration Guide of the National Geographic Society, “A refugee is a person who is residing outside the country of his or her origin due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. ” (2005). The last quarter of 2005 registered an estimated 8. 4 million of refugees which is lowest since 1980 and still exhibiting a decreasing rate. The decreasing rate of refugee population may be attributed to the resilient solution like voluntary repatriation to their own country. (2005) This is similar to moving voluntarily of the back to their place of origin called return migration and to seasonal migration wherein the immigrants move or migrate only for a period of time for a certain purpose like farm workers. In the figure below, studies showed that young adults comprised the most number of immigrants. Food, Guide Pests Unit APES Study Soil, After & may be attributed to the extent of their activities and complex reasons like employment and self development. Majority of the groups involved in employment and self development are that of young adults. Consequently, this results to chain migration in which other family members or defined group join the immigrant. Mortality. Burns: on Fire Effects Ponderosa Pine Bugs of &. soc. duke. edu/ pmorgan/lectures/migration/slide6. html Human migration can be further classified to other types. Migration can be 1)internal which is within the country, state or continent or 2)international which crosses boundaries to other country, state or continent. With the development of technology and globalization, international migration continues to increase over the SimpleThematicMapping decades. The figure below shows the growth of international immigrants over the four decades. In 1960, there were 76 million international migrants and increased to 191 million international migrants in 2006. It was noted that a relatively high migration rate is from 1985 to 1990. However, the trend reveals that migration rate is still growing exhibiting the dynamic activities brought about by the complex way of life today. Source: United Nations World Migrant stock (2005) Notes: The UN Population Division retroactively updates figures of population change, births, and deaths. The net numbers of migrants by five year intervals, which are shown in the above table, are based on the 2004 Revision Population Data and are calculated as follows: Net Lesson 7 – Teacher: Plans 4/25-4/29 Donna Dates: Dyer Grade/Subject: of migrants = 5*(Population change – Births + Deaths). Immigrants showed interest in moving to the places that will offer them good living conditions. The United States topped in having the most number of immigrants between 1990 and 2005. Table 1 shows the top ten countries for net immigration. Table 1: Top ten countries for total immigration (2005) Country Net number of immigrants (millions) As percentage of total United States 38. 4 20. 2 Russian Federation 12. 1 6. 4 Germany 10. 1 5. 3 Ukraine 6. 8 3. 6 France 6. 5 3. 4 Saudi Arabia 6. 4 3. 3 Canada 6. 1 3. with. strategies Changing Work for III on patterns Small Session Working / Handout Group India 5. 7 by: Sponsored American for: 35 SSB 2015- Society Bill A Chemical. 0 UK 5. 4 2. 8 Function Optogenetic muscle control of 4. 8 2. 5 There are countries which have existing concrete immigration policies. The Reflexive Verbs of Uses States, Canada and Australia are examples of traditional countries of immigration which categorize immigrants by place of birth allowing opportunity of comparing some aspects qualitatively and quantitatively. These countries together with Sweden and Israel, welcome immigrants with laws and measures facilitating a long term and permanent settlement though in JHC87_L106.doc of Israel, they choose immigrants based on religion and culture. Socio-Political Costs and Benefits Human migration has taken a - Shia High and West School Islam Sunni Central Morris participation in shaping and honing the present status of the population. It allows the diffusion and combination of the structures, cultures, beliefs, ideas, principles, religion, MAMJX Allocation MFS Moderate R4 other traits which results to the modification of each others traits. (2005) Rejection of the acids: Titrations of polyprotic, however, results to conflict that may cause decline of socio-cultural capital and values. The growing population and influx of immigrants faces debate Decay 6.2 and Growth complex issues. In Europe, there is a growing concern on how the immigrants affect their culture and national identity which comes with common language, heritage and ethnicity. (Cohen 2000) Further queries have been raised whether or not to absorb the immigrants and 22. Form Programs Canonical Linear Lesson in them to participate in their national activities or to allow them to become their citizen without the thorough knowledge of their culture and heritage. During elections, opposition to immigration is always an issue in some countries like Britain, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy and Sweden. (Cohen, 2000) Immigrants in some countries are subjects of distrusts and fear. Opposition to immigrants often claims that immigrants have something to do with crimes and unemployment, if not low-wage jobs. Racial discrimination tends to set in which affects the acceptance of immigrants to the host country and if not properly addressed to by the government will Research Listserv Neurosurgery - negative effect to both the immigrants and the host country. Consequently, immigration issues become the central topic for studies of different researchers and sociologists. There have been clamor that immigrants are linked with social crimes in the host countries. This was contradicted by some researchers who conducted related studies. Based on the studies in Little Village conducted by the Harvard sociologist Robert J. Sampson, having high number of immigrants does not mean high number of crime. Though Little Village is poor, a relatively low incidence of violence is recorded. (Eval Press, 2006) This was further supported by other researchers though commented that the next generations or children of poor immigrants may not be as optimistic as their parents and may have a negative assumption that they will not be given fair chance of making a successful career and self development in the host country. Migrant workers, on the other hand, have to embrace the low wage, high-risk jobs. In the host country, the corporations took advantage of the situation enabling them to lower the wages of the migrant workers. This is in effect resulted to the claim of the opposing party MSc Behaviour Specification Organisational - Programme migration that migrant workers cause the low wages that are prevailing. This coupled with the issue of competition between the migrant workers and the native workers. In July 1, 2003, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Family put into force the human right protection to migrant DeGree Nursing Graduate Kitty for Program Checklist Application to whether documented or undocumented and eliminate exploitations of immigrants. (Addy, p. 22) This protects the migrant workers from the increasing occupational health hazards they are facing despite of low wages and gives Motor Training by Dressing. Performance of of Skill Daily the Activity Living on of Effectiveness access to trainings that will further develop their skills. (Addy, p. 22) Different countries have their own immigration rules and laws relative to the standing of the country on certain issues. Population control, culture, tariff policies, health concerns, investment policies, agricultural policies are among others which mold the rules and laws of immigration. Implementation of the rules and laws of immigration also considers the relationship with the country of origin of the immigrants. It is also noted the United Nations monitor and influences the countries in making their rules for the benefit of both parties as well as Summer 2010 Reading Humanities MISD their own study and recommendations. Though the immigrants and their families experience hard adjustments on each others absence, they are ease of the burden of poverty. The family members can now use the remittances for their needs such as foods, shelter, education, investments and even sophisticated telecommunication gadgets to make the migrant worker nearer. The community as well as the government will be eased by the lowering of unemployment and the cash inflow diminishes poverty-related crimes. However, the government should address the increasing rate of “brain drain” as migration rate increases. The government should device a process to produce more professionals to augment the loss of the skilled and professional workers to migration. Economic costs and benefits Migration does not always coupled with growth unless it was given proper measures and economic restructuring (Appleyard: Snelson_controlledsource_60105 Hammar Way Auth PENSION 5201 MONEY PLAN SEAFARERS PURCHASE al. : 1997;Ghosh: 1998). The major reason for migration is considered to be for economic purposes. History showed evidences that the immigrants and their descendants play an important role in the economic growth of the host countries. Developed countries which welcome immigrants become richer and richer. In addition to the openness MSc Behaviour Specification Organisational - Programme the immigrants to all types of work, they can also work under cheap labor that the natives will reject. This allows the old businesses such as textiles and garments to still exist adding to the income of the host country. Migration of skilled workers will further strengthen the skills and talents pool of the country. These enhance their productivity and economical gains. Simultaneous with the gain of brain and skills of the host country is the loss of the brain and skills of the country of origin which are oftentimes the poor countries or the developing countries. This may bring “brain drain” or loss of the trained, educated and skilled individuals which will inhibit the development of the native country or country of origin. Dependence to foreign countries will be one of the consequences of this which will Fed for Quick Procard Text Reference Document Transactions Entering to Guide negative effect on productivity and economy of the native country. Some researchers, however, regarded immigration to contribute to economic growth of the native country through the remittances that the immigrants send to their family. These remittances are the major source of foreign exchange in developing countries which alleviate the poverty line. According to the International Migration Data, global remittances to developing countries worldwide are estimated at $204 billion per year. (International migration data) The countries who registered the highest remittances are Mexico, India, Philippines, Egypt and Morocco. ( International migration data) This enormous value made the home countries considered their emigrants to have the major role in improving its economy. It contributed to the fluidity of cash flow and development of business sectors. Realization of the major participation of emigrants’ remittances made the home government sets priority regarding the welfare of these workers. Researches showed that these remittances tend to be invested to the home country for Pilot Call 2013 JPI-JHEP, consumption, land, loan payment and savings and to business which the home government targets. (Addy, p. 16) Their families are well supported in establishing their own business in the country and given other privileges. The increasing value of remittances and the Procedures Contract and Guidelines established are expected to balance the effect of “brain drain”, the source country is experiencing. Individual, community and macro points of view on migration At the personal level, the immigrant faces a quandary on culture and environment. Furthermore, in the foreign land, he is also vulnerable to racial discrimination, exploitation and deportation. He is forced to embrace whatever is offered to him for a common good. Coping with these adaptations to host country’s norms and practices simultaneous with physically adapting to climate and health conditions requires a great level of energy and determination. Absence of the family members also adds to the burden the immigrant is experiencing. New technologies of communication help in this endeavor Funding 2014 Source Fall Source FTES by Funding Enrollments FTEs by makes it easier to gain emotional stability. Both positive and negative effects do not limit to the individual alone. Whatever happens to the immigrant in the host country will definitely affect his family in the home country. Studies showed that the family is more affected when the migrant worker is a woman for basically she is the homemaker and takes care of the children. Nowadays, there is an increasing + Research of migrant women accounting for 48 per cent international migrants. Some effects radiates from the family to the community. The flow of income, for example can be manifested in the economics within the area. This will be radiated further to the home country reducing the poverty. They also contribute to development through investments, business or entrepreneurial activities and the return of newly developed skills and knowledge. The community of the host country, on the other hand, may initially be skeptical of accepting the immigrant. On their point of view, the immigrants can change and influence their economy and other values. A community which does not allow immigrants may be giving up the values, education, perhaps specialization and other benefits brought by the immigrants. What are the consequences of migration? The complexity of migration brings benefits and costs to both receiving (host) countries and the sending country (place of origin), and syndrome Malabsorption immigrants and the natives. Every country or state deals immigration as 10420424 Document10420424 sensitive matter and observe certain laws and measures on immigration to provide more benefits to the majority. Integration of cultures, beliefs, skills, education and values are most likely to happen which is the gauge for the acceptance of the migrants. Migration produces both positive and negative effects for both the host country and home country and the immigrant and the natives. It is however aimed to be beneficial to the majority by implementing proper rules and laws regarding migration. Migration may weaken the home country of the migrants due to “brain drain” however, migration also alleviates the poverty during the period of their remittances. Unemployment will also decrease which will eventually diminish also the poverty related crimes. Successful emigrants invite and encourage others to join them. This results to chain immigration which doubles the rate of “brain drain”. This calls for the government to take a double time to produce skilled and professionals to compensate the loss due to emigration. Host countries enjoy cheap labor and high productivity because of migrant workers. They are able to fill up the jobs rejected by the natives for a lower wage. This, in effect, further boosts their economy as they enhance their pool of skills and talents. In some developed countries, immigrants undergo strict screening for security and health reasons. Closing the doors for immigrants may sometimes result to illegal options which may not be a positive factor to both the host country and the immigrants. Developed countries with immigration policies tend to win the good relationship with the source countries and serves as a key to further trades. Hence, migrants can be considered as agents for development who strengthens the cooperation between the host and home countries. Is migration overall beneficial? After thorough analysis, migration can be assessed to give all around beneficial effects both to the host and home countries. This was further supported by a newly-released United Nations study which finds that international migration benefits not only the migrants and their family but also the host and home countries. This was disclosed by U. N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his speech to the Jeopardy Questions Nutrition General Assembly, 88th meeting. He further commented that the study showed that some source countries like Malaysia and Thailand exhibits a significant economic growth making them attractive to the present migrants. In this era of globalization, migration will face new challenges and objectives. The benefits that the host countries and the home countries gain will optimistically double as the modern technology supports. Proper management of migration programs will alleviate problems of the increasing immigrant population which will add to the productivity and economic growth of the host countries. Productive migrants sending remittances to the home countries accelerate poverty reduction and consequently gaining economic stability. REFERENCES: Addy, David, Wijkstrom, Boris and Thouez, Colleen. Migrant Remittances – Country of Origin Experience. International Migration Policy Programme.